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Cotyledons.  Key characteristics: very long and narrow, prominent mid-vein, foul odor when crushed.

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Seedling plant.  Key characteristics: first true leaves have entire margins; foul odor when crushed.

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Vegetative plant.  Key characteristics: leaves are dark green, smooth, and have coarse, irregular teeth along the margins.

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Flower.  Key characteristics: tubular until late afternoon when they open to become funnel-shaped.  Color ranges from white to purple.

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Fruit.  Key characteristics: a capsule which contains stiff spines and four compartments.


Seed.  Seed are kidney-shaped, dark and have wrinkled surfaces.  Size is approximately 3.0 mm x 2.0 mm.

Life cycle: summer annual.

Toxic Plant: All animals (including pets and poultry) may be affected.  All parts are highly toxic, especially the seeds.  Dilated pupils, agitation, trembling, delirium from experiencing hallucinations, convulsions (which may be violent), coma, and possible death have been reported.  Abortions and birth defects have also been reported.